How Do Results Look and What do They Mean?

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How Do Results Look and What do They Mean?
Example Results for a Person of Caucasian (European) Ancestry

Comments for this sample individual:
 These sample results are for a North American of European descent.  To view a sample of results in high-resolution PDF format.

Part A: Genetic Profile: Your unique genetic profile includes your allele values for 21 genetic markers distributed throughout your autosomal chromosomes.  At each locus, you have two values: one allele inherited from your father and one allele inherited from your mother, for a total of 42 dimensions used to compute your geographic ancestry.  Your unique combination of alleles is used to compute high-resolution
Native Population, Global Population and World Region matches.

Comments for this sample individual: At each locus, this individual inherited one allele value from their mother and one from their father.  Each allele value is a number representing repeats of a particular genetic sequence.  For instance, at the locus (location on a chromosome) TH01, this individual has inherited one alleles of length 6 (6 repeats), and one of length 9.3 (9.3 repeats). This DNA profile serves as a genetic fingerprint unique to this person.  This collection of allele values is used to compute a person’s connections to individual populations and world regions.  


Part B: High-Resolution Native Population Match: DNA Tribes identifies your Top 20 matches in a database of all native
populations that have experienced minimal movement and admixture in the last 500 years.  Individual matches do not necessarily indicate recent social or cultural affiliation with a particular ethnicity.  Instead, the geographical distribution of your Native Population Match results indicates your most likely deep ancestral origins.

Comments for this sample individual: The Top 20 Native population matches for this individual all fall within Europe.  Individual scores do not indicate a person’s percentage of individual ethnic groups.  Instead, they indicate where a DNA profile is most frequent.  The strongest match is with a sample from Strathclyde, Scotland, where this individual’s DNA profile is 334,648.46 times as likely as in the world as a whole.  The TribeScore of (0.95) indicates this score is higher than scores for 95% of sampled Strathclyde individuals. However, this DNA profile can be found in other nearby European nations at similar frequencies.  For instance, the score for a population sample from the Netherlands is 118,787.13, indicating this DNA profile is 334,648.46 / 118,787.13 = 2.82 times as likely in Strathclyde, Scotland as in the Netherlands.

For this individual, Strathclyde, Scotland would be the most likely population of origin, but other ethnic origins such as Dutch, Croatian, or Danish cannot be excluded.  It is also possible this individual could be of Irish or French heritage but has inherited genetic markers that are more typical of other nearby populations of Europe.  


Part C: High-Resolution Global Population Match: In this section,
we provide your Top 20 matches in a database of all global populations, including native peoples as well as Diaspora groups that expanded from their homelands and sometimes admixed with other populations in recent history. The geographical distribution of these matches indicates your closest genetic relatives today and peoples whose blend of geographical ancestry is most similar to your own.  

Comments for this sample individual: These Global results are similar to the Native population matches in Part C, because this individual’s top 20 matches are found among European populations. However, additional European Diaspora matches are also observed, available in Extended Match Results (see add-on report document by clicking).

Part D: High-Resolution
World Region Match: World Region Match measures your genetic connections to major world regions:

Comments for this sample individual: World region results provide the best general picture of a person’s genetic connections to the world.  They can often clarify individual Native and Global population match results. For instance, this individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in the Northwest European region. This is consistent with the distribution of both Native and Global population matches, which are concentrated in and around Northwest Europe.  

To be more precise, this individual’s DNA profile is most frequent in Northwest Europe, where it is 51,496.44 times as likely as in the world.  Substantial scores (>1.0) also include other European and Near Eastern regions. These secondary affiliations indicate this DNA profile can also be found at lower frequencies in other world regions related to Europeans.  
Scores can be compared to each other to give relative frequency: for instance. This DNA profile is 51,496.44 / 287.43 =  179.16 times as frequent in Northwest Europe as in the North India region.  This indicates that while this person’s DNA is most common in Northwest Europe, it can be found at a lower frequency in North India.

All scores are measured against the Generic Human Index of 1.0.  Scores above 1.0 are more frequent in that region than in the world, while scores below 1.0 are more frequent in the world than in that region.  For instance, this individual’s score for South India is 0.46, indicating this DNA profile is 1.0 / 0.46 = 2.17 times as likely in the world as in South India.   

Summary Comments: DNA Tribes results for this person provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of their European ancestry including their closest genetic relatives amongst ethnic groups in Europe as well as precise measurements of where their DNA profile can be found in major world regions.